S.E.R.E. TEST 1 Answers


  1. A human can go three minutes without air, three hours without shelter, three days without water and three weeks without food.


  2. Double the amount under you that is on top (roof) of you.


  3. Pine needles, broad leaves, dried grasses, sod, evergreen boughs and snow.


  4. Thin bushy branches that cover the skeletal ribs of a shelter. They help hold loose insulating material on the structure.


  5. Stuff your clothing with natural insulating material.


  6. A door plug is made of a large ball of insulating material and is used to stuff into the doorway of a shelter.


  7. A lean-to, fire and fire reflector.


  8. A fire reflector is a large mass (wall of logs, down tree, bolder, plied stones, piece of wreckage that will absorb heat from a fire and reflect heat back at the survivor. The are important so that all of the heat released form the fire is not wasted traveling in any direction that the survivor is not located at.


  9. Digging trenches around the drip line of a poncho hooch aids in the run off of water during torrential down pour.


  10. Fire wood source in the winter and water source in the desert or hot climates.


  11. The deeper you dig the longer you live, temperature control.


  12. Stuff it full of insulation and block off the entrance off after entering.


  13. Move to a level, safe location and build a shelter. If it is not dangerous to move back to the vehicles location try to keep the vehicle from becoming snow covered (just knock the snow off). If possible remove debris or vegetation that may block an overhead view from rescue assets. Construct a rescue signal.


  14. Construct and above ground coffin shelter with rocks and use snow (if you have waterproof gloves) to fill in the cracks between the rocks (chinking).


  15. Take wet clothes off and stuff them in the sleeping bag, they will dry by morning.


  16. An improvised teepee shelter with a small fire in the middle of the room. Or two "V"2s.


  17. Dig a hole under the vehicle and use it for shade, if the ground is suitable for digging into. The amount of effort put out to the amount of sweat lost while digging will have to be evaluated.


  18. Tie the foam rubber from dismantled seat cushions around your feet. And stuff your clothing with wadded up newspaper and bits and pieces of cushions. Remember the plane has insulation in the walls as well.


  19. Pieces of a mirror for signaling, blankets, and water. Place a trash bag liner in a pillowcase and fill it up in the shower. Tie off the top and head for the lifeboat.


  20. Building the shelter off of the ground.


  21. The more layers of chute and dead air space in between the layers, the more insulation is improved. Plus, when the top layer gets wet, the water will penetrate it and ran down the underside of that layer to the ground. It will only take so much.


  22. Wire of all gauges and lengths, seat cushion materials for insulation, mirrors to be used for signaling, tire tool that can be used to dig with, fuel and small amounts of oil for starting fires and lubrication on a bow drill, floor mats that can be used to sew together a ruck sack or as ground pads, tail light lens caps to be use as a cup for gathering water, sharp metal parts that can be fashioned into a cutting tool.


  23. Evergreen boughs (branches).


  24. Burrow into a snow bank or drift, trying to keep the entranceway away from the wind.


  25. Six to eight inches is a good start.


  26. Tie the poncho hood closed and use a guy line to tie it off to an overhead branch. Or tie it off to the center of two stout crossed ridgepoles and lean them away from the hooch. The weight of the poles will pull the center out and hold it if the poles are heavy enough.


  27. Pile up a bed of leaves two feet thick. Tie the liner inside of the poncho, and then fold it in half. Lay it down on the leaf bed and stuff leaves in between the layers of liner and poncho. Then tie the two halves of the sleeping bag together at the grommets. Pile as large amount of leaves as possible onto the sleeping bag. Then slide in between the two liner layers.


  28. Lighter Knot is an old pine stump that has been through a forest fire. The aged sap of the tree holds a flammable consistency of turpentine. You can tell it is ready by smelling it.


  29. A tinder ball is a baseball to softball sized wad of dried plant material (grasses, weeds, cattail seedpod material etc.) wood shavings, or shredded bark. It is used as the igniter for a fire starter.


  30. Ripping and twisting the tinder ball material fluffs the fibers and makes it easier to ignite it.


  31. Lighter knot and a large pile of wood shavings cut from the dry center of thick wet wood.


  32. Place a tinderball next to a 6-8 inch thick log and lean matchstick thick sticks against the tinderball. Then lean longer pencil thick sticks up against the log just over the tinderball.


  33. Sit cross legged/Indian style over the teepee. Pull your shirt over your knees. Look down through the neck hole and put your hands under your thighs into the fire material. Now with the entire fire structure blocked from the wind you can light the tinder ball. When it gets going bale out slowly.


  34. It can be made from a rock or hard wood. It must be harder than fire shaft or it will burn up.


  35. By running it through your hair or along side of your nose. Oil from wreckage can be used as well.


  36. The ridges on the shaft help the bowstring to grip the shaft.


  37. The fireboard should be a Ĺ inch to ĺ of an inch thick.


  38. A coal is most possibly formed.


  39. The notch allows the sawdust to escape and pile up and gives the coal air.


  40. By pushing down on the bowstring with the thumb that is holding the bow and pushing up on the underneath side of the string just behind the thumbs position.


  41. A hole is dug the length of you bed approximately 8inches deep and 12inches wide. It is filled with approximately 4 inches of red-hot coals and rocks. It is covered over with approximately 6 inches of dirt. Then some bedding material. It releases heat through out the night.


  42. Many would-be survivors try starting the tinderball from the top or side. The flames need to spread across as much of the surface of the tinderball as possible. Starting it low from the underside all the way around is the best.


  43. Rocks taken from wet locations can be full of moisture. When the rock is heat in a fire the moisture tries to escape rapidly and can cause the rock to explode. This is a common place event donít take chances.


  44. Rock boiling is used when a fireproof container is not available. Heated rocks are placed into whatever kind of container to super heat the contents and bring it to a boil.


  45. Construct a lean-to of some make and model and build the fire under it.


  46. As you cook the contents in the hide (usually soup) the skin begins to shrink.


  47. Build a tinder ball and push a finger size hole in it down to the middle. Drop a hot ember into it and gently blow on it until the fibers of the tinderball catch. Blow on it harder as the flame grows in intensity. Then stuff it under a teepee or lean-to fire assembly. And blow until it ignites the entire ball.


  48. 8-10 large drops of bleach or iodine per quart. Stir or shake well, let it stand for 20 minutes. In cold climates let it stand for 30 minutes. A good rule of thumb is to put enough drops in until the water smells at little on the chemical side.


  49. Dew ragging is using a rag or sponge to absorb dew in the morning from the surfaces of plants or rocks. Then squeeze it out into a container.


  50. Sycamore tree.


  51. Blood, urine, or salt water.


  52. The small circular trench dug under the veggie still allows for a place for moisture to collect. (reservoir)


  53. A clear plastic trash bag.


  54. The internal environment of a solar still is made up of the plastic cover and the ground its self. If the ground is arid then it will not produce a sufficient amount of moisture to collect on the plastic. Then ground ends up absorbing any same amount of moisture from the booster. The plastic encloses a vegetation stills entire internal environment.


  55. It can be purified (turned into vapor and collected) over a fire with an improvised desalination still or in a vegetation still.


  56. Fish first.


  57. Wire mesh.


  58. At least 2-3 dozen and a dozen treble hooks.


  59. Under downed logs, under rocks, along the shore line or a dead log can be busted up.


  60. Grubs, insects, earthworms.


  61. A trap line is a series of traps that may traverse many kilometers of terrain in many different directions.


  62. Sign is tracks, scrapes, dung, dens, nests, feed beds, etc that animals use or leave behind.


  63. Three


  64. A rock, log or board is propped up with a trigger next to a bait box or on a natural game trail. The animal trips the trigger and the rock or log falls on top of the animal crushing it.


  65. A counter weight or spring pole.


  66. A game fence is rocks or sticks that are set up to funnel the game into the trap.


  67. The answer is to get the bait because it is a baited trap.


  68. The cage either drops down on it or a trap door closes on it.


  69. Game trails or den entrances.


  70. So that the targeted animal will push his nose under it and proceed into the trap.


  71. To keep the animal from rolling the cage over.


  72. A Rhodesian figure four trigger with a bait platform.


  73. Forty to 60 pounds is advisable.


  74. A deadfall


  75. Logs or rocks can be stacked on top of each other or stakes can be driven into the ground in a horseshoe shape. Then stout sticks are laid across the top and weighted with rocks.


  76. Jab or thrust it with the best results when you can pin it to the bottom.


  77. To close off the openings in between the skeletal ribs, preventing the fish from escaping.


  78. Gigging or with hook and line which is a modified form of gaffing or with an artificial lure on a line.


  79. Coal burning is used to hollow out containers.


  80. Most harmful organisms or killed at the boiling point. One to two minutes is long enough.


  81. Pocket equipment is the basic survival gar that is carried in the pockets at all times. Knife, fire starting device, 550 cord, fishing hooks, purification tabs, snare wire, etc.


  82. Sunscreen, poncho and liner, clear plastic bags, collapsible water container, tweezers, long underwear, leather gloves, and a headlamp.


  83. You donít.


  84. All skin should be covered with loose baggy, light colored clothing. A large brimmed hat and sunglasses. And footgear that cover the entire foot. Carrying an umbrella if possible.


  85. Digging down into low spots in dry stream and creek beds. Investigate rock formations, were natural catches are in pock hole and seeps. Investigate old towns or farms may have unlikely wells. In natural catches in old wreckage. Around dark green vegetation that stick out from surrounding vegetation.


  86. North.


  87. They will aid in locating water sources or following herd animals from a distance to water sources.


  88. A flexible vine or saplings lashed together.


  89. It gives the survivor a signaling device that can be seen for many miles.


  90. It is much louder than the human voice.


  91. Because it is water and wind proof which can protect against hypothermia.


  92. When the need for an evader arises that he/she needs to travel down or across a waterway to avoid pursuers.


  93. Peanut butter.


  94. Matches are susceptible to deterioration and lighters will produce a longer burning hotter flame.


  95. Tripwire, suture material, fishing line, and for flossing.


  96. A sewing needle and thread material and cordage.


  97. Hantavirus


  98. Raccoon


  99. Break down rifle or .22 long barreled pistol.


  100. Insect netting, insect repellant, large bladed knife or machete, water purification tabs, two sets of fatigues (one dry pair for sleeping in and the "wet" set for daily use), solar still material (it works well in hot wet environments), military heat tabs, iodine for cuts and water purification, and oral rehydration salt packets. A waterproof headlamp, poncho and utility pot are recommended.


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